"The rivers disconnect us, the bridges help connect." The bridge is a complex engineering and technical structure that serves for transportation of coasts, overcoming a water barrier.
Car, railway, pipeline, combined type - today in Russia there are more than 40 thousand different bridge structures, and their number is constantly increasing: new ones are being built and existing are being reconstructed.
Given the variety of Russian reliefs and climatic conditions, the design and construction of each new structure is a unique task, the solution of which requires the constant improvement of existing construction techniques and the active development of new ones. The pile foundations of the bridge supports are one of the most popular technologies today. The foundations on stilts of various designs can be built and effectively work in almost any conditions, which is especially important in the realities of our huge country.
Construction of bridges
The construction of supports for the future bridge is the most responsible and laborious part of the work. It is the supports that take on constant and variable loads and transfer them to the base.
Any support consists of three main elements. The upper part, the crossbar or the head of the support, the middle part or the “body” of the support, and the foundation part located directly in the ground under water or underground. In some varieties of supports, its middle part and foundation are one.
The device of each bridge structure requires the construction of supports of two types: foundations and intermediate supports.
The foundations are two extreme supports on which the ends of the span structure are based.
Intermediate supports are also traditionally called “bulls” (for a certain similarity with powerful bull horns). Intermediate supports take on the main load from span structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete supports are most often erected; steel piles and pile pipes of various diameters are often used for the device.
Construction of the foundations of support
When designing the future bridge, pile foundations for supports allow us to achieve accurate compliance with the existing requirements for the reliability of the future design. And taking into account the difficult Russian conditions, such a solution usually turns out to be not only economically feasible, but also often the only implementable in practice.
Style is a “long -meter”, immersed in the soil or formed directly in the ground and serving for “achieving” dense ground layers. Separate piles are combined into a pile foundation using a grillage, a slab placed at the upper ends. The grillage serves to place the bridge support and evenly distributes the load on separate piles in the base.
In the depth of the laying, pile foundations are used low, high and intermediate, depending on the mutual arrangement of the grillage and the surface of the soil: low - below the level, high - higher, at the level.
The low grillage allows you to distribute part of the load on the surrounding soil, is used on rivers with a heavy ice regime, as well as in small reservoirs, when there is no need for high supports.
High grillage with similar stiffness requires less materials and work, a monolithic grillage can be replaced with a team concrete structure, placing piles at an angle to the horizon allows you to increase the strength of the entire foundation.
pile foundations on clogging reinforced concrete piles
Cutting reinforced concrete piles are immersed in the soil without its excavation using special mechanisms. Depending on the “ground conditions”, “shock” immersion, as well as pressing and vibration loading, can be used directly.
Other types of piles should be noted reinforced concrete piles, drilling and bullying piles, which are formed directly in the ground, if necessary, casing pipes of various diameters are used as a protective casing. In some cases, the use of screw piles that “screw” into the soil with the help of Kabestan is effective.
The type of clogging reinforced concrete pile depends on the reinforcement method, on the forms of longitudinal and transverse sections, as well as on a number of other important features of the structure.
The variety of types of piles and modern design methods allow you to accurately calculate the future characteristics of the foundation of the bridge support and carry out all the work with the minimum possible cost and in a short time.
Steel pipes for bridge structures: where to buy
Today, steel pipes are actively used in the construction of bridges. The pipes are involved as an important element of various designs, pile pipes are “laid” as supporting, serve as casing, pipe -pile fences are used in the fencing of pits, ensuring its tightness. The construction of new bridges, including in the framework of the implementation of projects of national importance, requires a constant increase in the supply of “steel” products.
Zagorsky Pipe Plant today is confidently among the largest suppliers. A noticeable part of the products manufactured by the company is oriented, including the needs of bridge builders. Among the regular buyers of ZTZ - Gazprom, Rosatom, Rosneft, Novatek, FSUE Rosmorport. ZTZ products are a variety of “pipe” products that fully meet the most modern requirements and is ready to work throughout the country and in a variety of qualities.