## The basic principles of the formation of brownish piles

In modern construction, pile foundations using brownish technologies are actively used in the construction of objects of various scales and appointments.

In individual construction, such technologies are an opportunity to create a reliable basis for the future home: reliable and economical, since many necessary operations can be performed independently. When erecting large engineering and industrial facilities, large -diameter piles are also the ability to effectively carry out work provided that serious “external restrictions”. For example, when working in dense urban development or during the construction of bridge supports in the channels of water bodies.

The main difficulty in calculating the reliability of the future design is the impossibility of accurate calculation of the strength of individual pile “trunks”, since they are not made by the factory way, and their formation occurs directly in the ground.

The general principles of brownish technologies are as follows. At the first stage, drilling wells in the ground is carried out. The second stage is the filling (“stuffing”) of the wells with a concrete mixture and its tamping. At the final stage, the well is reinforced, and in the future the reinforcement will be used to connect individual pile “trunks” with a grillage that “closes” them into a single design.

It is in the process of stuffing the well that some “uncertainty” arises, since it is impossible to accurately assess the strength of the pile element formed in the ground. Nevertheless, knowing the “introductory conditions” of the soil using special tables and formulas, you can quite accurately evaluate the strength of the future foundation, choose the optimal geometric sizes of future piles, their number and location on the pile field.

## The strength of the foundation on brownizer piles: Calculation principles

The general load on the foundation is determined by the weight of the future house or structure, taking into account possible additional loads, for example, snow and wind. The strength of a separate pile is proportional to its length and diameter. At the same time, for the best price/safety margin, it is necessary to take into account value indicators. The volume of the pile, and therefore the consumption of the concrete mixture, is directly proportional to the length and square of the diameter; Also, the larger diameter of the well may require the use of more expensive drilling equipment and the growth of concomitant costs.

First of all, the length and diameter are determined by the properties of the soil at the work site, therefore, at the first stage of the design, appropriate surveys are carried out.

Soils with an groundwater level higher than 1 meter exclude the use of technology. It is also not recommended the use of brownish piles on wet, subsidence and other types of unreliable soils.

In solid, hard -plastic and soft -plastic soils, the determining characteristics are the level of groundwater & nbsp; (UGV) and freezing depth: the pile depth is chosen based on them using special tables. So, in solid soil with UGV 2.5 meters and freezing depth of 0.5 meters, the recommended depth of the face will be 1.0 meters. And in soft -plastic soil with UGV 4 meters and freezing depth of 2 meters, the required length of the pile will be 3 meters.

Further, using special formulas and tables, for calculating the bearing capacity, the optimal proportion of the length and diameter of the pile trunk is selected, their required quantity and location on the pile field is determined. In this case, the following additional conditions must be observed:

- Pile elements must be located at the corners of the future house.

- The maximum “step” between two neighboring wells is no more than 2 meters.

-The minimum “step” between neighboring wells is at least 3-4 diameters of the well in order to prevent the possible shedding of the walls.

- The type of installation of bored piles also imposes certain restrictions on the ratio of the diameter of the well and the depth of the face.

## Additional possibilities when using brownibular technologies

One of the basic possibilities of increasing the reliability of the design is to use casing pipes. The casing is immersed in the well after drilling and serves as a protective casing that prevents the wall of the wall. As the concrete mixture was tierred, the casing rises to the surface and is finally extracted after the full form of the pile. In some cases, incomprehensible casing pipes are used.

The use of casing in industrial construction allows you to form piles up to 30 meters in size, and in some cases up to 60 meters, for which several casing pipes are connected to the casing.

In the case of uncouraged walls of the well with its length from 2 to 6 meters, the diameter is 300-1000 millimeters. When using casing pipes, the length of the piles is 4-10 meters with a diameter of 800-1200 mm.

The active use of brownish technologies and their continuous improvement leads to a constant increase in demand for the necessary pipeline products. Production & nbsp; General -purpose casing pipes and pipes are a noticeable share in the product of products produced by the Zagorsky Pipe Plant. And the production of various types of pipes for trunk pipelines & nbsp; Allows the Moscow Region Metallurgists to participate in the construction of projects of a national scale. Among the regular buyers of the Zagorsky Pipe Plant - Gazprom, Rosatom, Rosneft, Novatek, FSUE Rosmorport.